Process-based theories use the mental processes of employees as the key to understanding employee motivation. (Instrumentality), How highly do I value work outcomes?(Valence). In Randi’s case, her goal achievement resulted in several benefits. Everyone has a unique combination of valences, instrumentalities and expectancies. Negative reinforcement, like positive reinforcement, is intended to make a behavior more likely to be repeated in the future. Mary’s inequity won’t last long (in real organizations), but in our hypothetical example, what might John do to resolve this? We may learn to wake up a minute or so before our alarm clock rings so we can turn it off and not hear the irritating buzzer. *You can also browse our support articles here >. The basic goal-setting model is shown in Exhibit 14.12. Locke has identified most of them.30 First, setting goals in one area can lead people to neglect other areas. Systematically evaluating which outcomes employees value. Employees will develop strong E2s. When a behavior causes something undesirable to be taken away, the behavior is more likely to be repeated in the future. Consistent enforcement of these policies is key—workers must believe in the contingencies. Looking back over our series, Adams’ equity theory ties in closely with those of Maslow and Herzberg.However, Equity Theory takes a less straightforward and more fluid approach than previous models; the employee can be content with their situation one day, but feel defeated the next. It is important that goals be set for most major duties. The main one is that many organizations subscribe too strongly to a principle of equality (not to be confused with equity). But will this result in highly motivated employees? For example with goal setting, if economic conditions change sharply affecting a sales department for example if a goal is not adjusted downward, a goal can become unreachable and performance will drop and if it is not adjusted upward in better economic conditions then the goal becomes too easy and the employee will not perform up to his/her capabilities. Choose a different referent other. Equity theory is about perceived fairness. As a Western manager working in the Middle East or sub-Saharan Africa, what motivational issues might you face? Equity theory is widely used, and its implications are clear. Under rewarding consistently negatively motivates but over rewarding has mixed results i.e. Whatever the cause of rating errors, some employees may come to believe that no matter what they do they will never receive a high performance rating. The theories based on this subject can be contrasting and are categorized into two types: content and process theories. Imposing goals on them from the outside usually results in less commitment (and acceptance). It basically states that people will do those things for which they are rewarded and will avoid doing things for which they are punished. Employees want to be rewarded on their merits, not the whims of their supervisors. In other words, some goals are more important than others. some employees decrease their motivation and others increase it while still others show no significant change. This book is Creative Commons Attribution License (Randi goes to her supervisor, and together they set some appropriate goals for her.) These drawbacks can be overcome, however if mangers are careful to establish clear standards for acceptable performance and an equitable system of extrinsic rewards without forgetting that valance of certain extrinsic rewards will vary from person and person. Ensuring that effort actually translates into performance by clarifying what actions lead to performance and by appropriate training. Your satisfaction has just evaporated. It is minor because maintaining old programs is boring, while writing new ones is fun. Maintaining this equity, said Adams, is based on the ratio of inputs — the contributions the employee makes to an organization — to the outcomes that result from these contributions. First, they don’t have sufficient resources to perform their jobs. It says that the level of reward we receive, compared to our own sense of our contribution, affects our motivation. It is not how managers feel about the allocation of rewards that counts but it is how the recipients perceive the rewards that will determine the motivational outcomes of the equity dynamic. For example, what is the first thing you do when you get an exam back in class? Another technique for making a desired response more likely to be repeated is known as negative reinforcement. The techniques managers use to make a behavior less likely to occur involve doing something that frustrates the individual’s need satisfaction or that removes a currently satisfying circumstance. Her behavior is consistent with her values. For example goals such as sell goods worth $20 000,00 dollars in a month or keep in touch with a customer each week rather than, increase sale of goods or keep in touch with customers. Indeed, it is one of the strongest theories in organizational behavior. Describe the process theories of motivation, and compare and contrast the main process theories of motivation: operant conditioning theory, equity theory, goal theory, and expectancy theory. However, this doesn’t always happen. Goal specificity – Includes what needs to be done, how much needs to be done and the performance period. Specific self-efficacy is our judgment about the likelihood of successful task performance measured immediately before we expend effort on the task. Finally, setting individual goals in a teamwork environment can be counterproductive.31 Where possible, it is preferable to have group goals in situations where employees depend on one another in the performance of their jobs. This approach is usually not selected unless the perceived inequity is quite high or other attempts at achieving equity are not readily available. There are many theories of motivation, and they mostly give a relation or influence the outcomes of employee job satisfaction. Both positive and negative outcomes influence our evaluation of equity. In general, continuous reinforcement is best while employees are learning their jobs or new duties. Expectancy Theory. You are pleased to have the extra help. That is, performance ratings don’t correlate well with actual performance levels. The second resource is called role perceptions—how employees believe their jobs are done and how they fit into the broader organization. Feedback is important on a regular and ongoing basis. Expectancy theory states that, when faced with two or more alternatives, we will select the most attractive one. For example, Randi holds the value that everyone should be a hard worker. According to equity theory, employees are demotivated when they view reward distribution as unfair. In the previous example, Philip’s reminders simultaneously punished one behavior (slow stocking) and reinforced another (faster stocking). High self-efficacy employees believe that they are likely to succeed at most or all of their job duties and responsibilities. If employees have weak E1s, they will perceive that high (or low) effort does not result in high performance and thus will not exert much effort. Succeeding on challenging goals increases the feeling of job satisfaction, which in turn increases motivation. Make sure employees understand what is expected of them, and praise them when they do it. It is important for managers to understand that this can happen despite rewards for high performance. Exhibit 14.12 lists the four types of goals. Operant conditioning theory does offer greater insights than “reward what you want and punish what you don’t,” and knowledge of its principles can lead to effective management practices. What regional, cultural, or ethnic issues do you think managers have to navigate within the United States? And, because most of us overestimate the pay of others, we tend to think that they’re paid more than they actually are, and the unjustified perceptions of inequity are perpetuated. Equality-focused organizations reason that some employees “getting more” than others leads to disruptive competition and feelings of inequity. It focuses on the process of setting goals themselves. It is difficult to assess the perception or misperceptions of the employees hence the difficulty in applying the concepts of the theory. Expectancy theory is sufficiently general that it is useful in a wide variety of situations. There are similarities with Charles Handy's extension and interpretationof previous simpler theories of Maslow, Herzberg and other pioneers of workplace psychology, in that the theory acknowledges that subtle and variable factors affect each individual's assessment and perception of their relationship with their work, and thereby their employer. Examples of constraints could be that her old computer frequently breaks down or her supervisor constantly interferes. The performance-outcome expectancy, E2, is the perceived relationship between performance and outcomes (or P ➨ O).1 Many things in life happen as a function of how well we perform various tasks. We can also deal with both over- and underreward inequities by changing the referent other (“my situation is really more like Ahmed’s”). Nonreinforcement can also reduce the likelihood that employees will repeat undesirable behaviors, although it doesn’t produce results as quickly as punishment does. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on The model is designed to help management analyse, understand workers’ motivation, and identify some of the relevant variables, though not providing practical help in solving their motivational problems except simple prescriptions such as making employees know exactly what is expected of them. There are three sub-theories of process theory have been developed. Note that the value attached to an input is based on our perception of its relevance and value. Some employees are highly sensitive to inequity, and a supervisor needs to be especially cautious around them.26 Everyone is sensitive to reward allocation.27 But “equity sensitives” are even more sensitive. What could go wrong? Approach using negative reinforcement with extreme caution. Goal theory holds that people will exert effort to accomplish goals if those goals are difficult to achieve, accepted by the individual, and specific in nature. Are they equitable in comparison to the way other workers are treated? We perceive that certain performance levels result in certain outcomes. Participative goals are jointly set. Positive inequity – when an individual feels they have received relatively more than others in proportion to their work inputs. According to Matthew MacLachlan at Communicaid, “Making the assumption that your international workforce will be motivated by the same incentives can be dangerous and have a real impact on talent retention” (2016 n.p.). Ted doesn’t like being continually reminded by Philip to work faster (Ted thinks Philip is nagging him), so he works faster at stocking shelves to avoid being criticized. These practices make everyone happier and your job easier. Nonreinforcement eventually reduces the likelihood of that response reoccurring, which means that managers who fail to reinforce a worker’s desirable behavior are also likely to see that desirable behavior less often. Having people participate in setting goals can increase acceptance of goals and commitment to them for example a co- management initiative that has low-level employees and managers working together to set budgets, set goals and make decisions. And as you would expect, low self-efficacy employees believe the opposite. The Ghanaian blog site Starrfmonline emphasizes that employee motivation and associated work quality improve when employees feel “valued, trusted, challenged, and supported in their work.” Conversely, when employees feel like a tool rather than a person, or feel unengaged with their work, then productivity suffers. Equity theory has a lot to say about basic human tendencies. Individuals analyze their environment, develop reactions and feelings, and react in certain ways. Another premise of goal theory is that specific goals are better than vague goals. By recognizing that different employees have different values and that values change over time, organizations can provide the most highly valued outcomes. At times it is necessary to discourage a worker from repeating an undesirable behavior. Goal setting increases motivation because people can focus their energies in the right direction and because people know what to do, the goals can easily be accomplished because efforts are directed to the most important aspects of the job. The lack of good external resources can also cause E1s to be weak. As we have previously discussed, reward is one of the key elements for a person’s motivation, however, there too is a catch. A positive reinforcement is a desirable consequence that satisfies an active need or that removes a barrier to need satisfaction. As we discuss shortly, people can take many actions to deal with underreward inequity. Remember, there is a big difference between treating employees equally and treating them equitably. The perceived state of equity can be altered by changing our own inputs, that is, by decreasing the quantity or quality of our performance. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of When they don’t receive it after just a few times, they quickly presume that the behavior will no longer be rewarded, and they quit doing it. When we perceive that underreward inequity exists (that is, others unfairly make more than we do), we will likely be dissatisfied, angered, and motivated to change the situation (or escape the situation) in order to produce a state of perceived equity. They do this in a number of ways. The difference is often a fine one, but it becomes clearer when we identify the behaviors we are trying to encourage (reinforcement) or discourage (punishment). The core of the equity theory is the principle of balance or equity. Perhaps the key caution about goal setting is that it often results in too much focus on quantified measures of performance. That is, it attempted to determine how frequently behaviors need to be rewarded so that they are not extinguished. Equity theory. Despite all this, it still does have a direct relevance for compensation practices. “Playing favorites” ensures perceptions of inequity. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Have you ever asked a professor “What do I need to do to get an A in this course?” If she responded “Do well on the exams,” you weren’t much better off for having asked. Philip’s reminders are a negative reinforcement for Ted. Perhaps they don’t know what good and poor performance levels are. This is equity theory in action. Cross-cultural signaling, social norms, and simple language barriers can make the task of motivation for the global manager confusing and counterintuitive. According to the equity theory, based on the work of J. Stacy Adams, workers compare the reward potential to the effort they must expend. In other words, most employees inaccurately overrate the inputs they provide to an organization. and intensity (how much effort to implement the alternative?). Avoidance learning occurs when we learn to behave in a certain way to avoid encountering an undesired or unpleasant consequence. Expectancy theory has much to offer the student of management and organizational behavior. Some managers use goal setting in unethical ways. Leave the situation. Criticism from Colleen’s supervisor could cause her to stop working hard on any assignment. People who perform under such variable-ratio schedules like this don’t know when they will be rewarded, but they do know that they will be rewarded. Alter inputs of the referent other. Three conditions can result from this comparison. Variable Interval. So John will likely ask for a raise. Other people have strong E1s and believe the opposite—that is, that they can perform at a high level if they exert high effort. Two human tendencies create feelings of inequity that are not based in reality. Reference this. It is this comparison of the two ratios that has the strongest effect on our equity perceptions. The easy ones do not require workers to increase their output. Why are ratings sometimes inaccurate? In addition, supervisors need to recognize differences in employees in their reactions to inequity. Individuals differ, so naturally their methods of reducing inequity also differ. Which type of reinforcement schedule is best? Inequity exists whenever one feels that the rewards they receive for their work inputs or contributions are unequal to the rewards other people appear to have received for their input and equity exists when the ratio is perceived to be equal. If they feel the ratio is fair in line with others, only they are motivated. If neither of these conditions exists in the perceptions of employees, their motivation to perform will be low. After that, variable-ratio reinforcement schedules are superior. How does this happen? Sometimes people believe that no matter how much effort they exert, they won’t perform at a high level. Usually, referent others are people we work with who perform work of a similar nature. He says the recognition doesn’t have to be over the top, just anything that the employees will perceive as gratitude, from a catered lunch for a team working extra hours to fulfill a deadline to a simple face-to-face thank you (Huhman 2017). Goal theory should be used to optimize the employment relationship. Feelings of inequity are solely determined by the individual’s interpretation of the situation. J. Stacy Adams developed equity theory. Equity theory proposes that peoples motivation, performance and satisfaction depend on their subjective evaluation of the relationships between their effort/reward ratio and the effort /reward of others in similar situations. That is, organizations can have a major impact on the direction and intensity of employees’ motivation levels. Supervisors, who typically give out ratings, well, they’re human. Most automobile workers are paid quite well for their work. A homework assignment is a stimulus. “Management Tips: How To Motivate Your International Workforce.” Communicaid. not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University. In contrast to the need-based theories we have covered so far, process-based theories view motivation as a rational process. If an employee feels he is putting more into a job than what he gets out of the job, relative to the referent, he will become demotivated, disgruntled, and even disruptive. Once an alternative is chosen, how motivated will we be to pursue that choice? Their inputs are equal (both fasten the same number of lug nuts at the same pace), but John makes $500 per week and Mary makes $600. The fourth type of goal, which can be self-set, jointly determined, or assigned, is a “do your best” goal. In the same situation, people with weak E2s will have the opposite perceptions—that high performance levels don’t result in desirable outcomes and that it doesn’t really matter how well they perform their jobs as long as they don’t get fired. If we believe that the outcomes are not commensurate with our inputs, we are dissatisfied. One day you come to work to find that a new person has been hired to work at the same job that you do. Adams’ Equity Theory of Motivation. Even more important is our comparison of our inputs to what we believe others received for their inputs (“Did I get as much for my inputs as my coworkers got for theirs?”). Unfortunately, many people enhance their outcomes by stealing from their employers. Consider the following examples. Or it causes unhealthy competition between employees. People with strong E2s believe that if they perform their jobs well, they’ll receive desirable outcomes—good pay increases, praise from their supervisor, and a feeling that they’re really contributing. Much of the early research on operant conditioning focused on the best way to maintain the performance of desired behaviors. Communicating a passion for a common vision, coaching employees to see themselves as accountable and as owning their work, or attempting to create a “motivational ecosystem” can all fall flat with simple missed cues, bad translations, or tone-deaf approaches to a thousand-year-old culture. equity/justice theory, expectancy theory, goal-setting theory ______ theory suggests that employees can be motivated by objectives that are specific and challenging but achievable and that have rewards tailored to individual needs. This does not mean that difficult goals are always achieved, but our performance will usually be better when we intend to achieve harder goals. She’ll be even more satisfied if her supervisor praises her performance and gives her a pay increase! OpenStax is part of Rice University, which is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit. The employee compares his input and output to colleagues, someone at another firm, or a cousin in another state. Probably look at your score and make an initial judgment as to its fairness. Individuals analyze their environment, develop reactions and feelings, and respond in certain predictable ways. It basically states... Equity Theory. Choose one or all of these. Basically, expectancy theory predicts that employees will be motivated to perform well on their jobs under two conditions. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. How do you feel? This is a state of equity. This model of motivation specifies that the effort to achieve high performance is a function of the perceived likelihood that high performance can be achieved and will be rewarded if achieved and that the reward will be worth the expended effort. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Our mission is to improve educational access and learning for everyone. Had your professor told you the key thrust of the course, to turn in all the problem sets, to pay close attention to the essay questions on exams, and to aim for scores in the 90s, you would have something concrete on which to build a strategy. Can I achieve the desired level of task performance? The three components of the expectancy theory can be thought of as three questions. Variable Ratio. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Under this category, we will review equity … When a person is learning a new behavior, like how to perform a new job, it is desirable to reinforce effective behaviors every time they are demonstrated (this is called shaping). Choices between job offers, between working hard or not so hard, between going to work or not—virtually any set of possibilities can be addressed by expectancy theory. Finally, a consequence (C) is any event that follows our response and that makes the response more or less likely to occur in the future. Process Theories of Motivation Process theories of motivation Process theories: theories of motivation that focus on how we make choices with respect to desired goals We will explore three process theories of work motivation: 1. Thus, it is advisable to allow people some input into the goal-setting process. Expectancy theory ties together many of the concepts and hypotheses from the theories discussed earlier in this chapter. 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process theories of motivation equity theory

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