These measurements enable managers to track equipment, personnel and reliability performance. The reason I do these things is that I want to improve in some way. High equipment reliability is a choice and not an accident of fortune. Reliability follows an exponential failure law, which means that it reduces as the time duration considered for reliability calculations elapses. MTBF is a basic measure of an asset’s reliability. MTTR. The chart on this page shows the follow times to repair. Collectively, they affect both the utility and the life-cycle costs of a product or system. Availability. It is usually denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda) and is often used in reliability engineering.. The result is 300 operating hours. The equation is straightforward: the total repair time divided by the number of repairs or replacement events. This measurement expresses the probability that an asset can perform its intended function satisfactorily when needed in a stated environment. Actual Reliability through OEE calculations are very complex. Inherent Availability 5. Similarly MTBR (Mean Time Between Repairs in Hrs) = ( U1 + U2 +U3 + U4 + U5 + U6 + U7 ) / 6 = 150 . The failure rate of any given piece of equipment can be described by a “bathtub” curve (see Figure 11.3).The bathtub curve is divided into three sections. Thank you Mr Jogesswara Rao. The origins of contemporary reliability engineering can be traced to World War II. Equipment failure rates (events/time) also can be used to quantify reliability. The formula now gives the reliability after three hours as R(t) = e -3 λ = e -0.03 = 0.9704 A simpler way of working this out would be just to say that if the failure rate is 0.01 per hour the total proportion of failures in 3 hours will be 0.03 (3%) so the reliability after three hours is simply R(t) = … “You can’t manage what you don’t measure”, said Peter Drucker. There is a generally accepted availability standard of 95 percent for equipment, but mission- critical equipment in facilities requires a much higher level of availability. The simple answer is: ‘It depends’ . For the general case, the system reliability formula for a parallel system becomes. For our calculations MIL-HDBK-217 is used, which is considered to be the standard reliability prediction method. Really good document explained complex thing in simple and easy to understand manner .Please give Tc code where we can see availability percentage. Suppose here too we get the same total values like: Total Uptime = U1 + U2 +U3 = Say 900 Hrs, Equipment Availability (%) is: Uptime / Total Time = (900 / 1008) * 100 = 89.2, Through other formula for Equipment Availability : [MTBR / (MTTR + MTBR)] * 100 = (450 / 504 )*100 = 89.2. Very glad to know that the content is useful to you. Hope members will be benefited by this post . Continue with example of the AHU. A piece of equipment can be available but not reliable. The availability of an asset will diminish over time as the equipment is being used. But when you find time to do so, I am really glad. Availability = [MTBR / (MTTR + MTBR)] * 100. Reliability can be used to understand how well the service will be available in context of different real-world conditions. Prediction methods are based on component data from a variety of sources: failure analysis, life test data, and device physics. How many miles I run, bike or swim? This has a realtime data of an Equipment with performance relevant to present discussion. I’m sure many followers like me, can take some inspirations from your documents and try to adapt the shown functions in their own company landscape. WHEN CREDIT IS DUE IT MUST BE GIVEN!! President Barringer & Associates, Inc. Humble, TX 77347 Abstract Reliability of manufacturing processes can be obtained from daily production data when process failure criteria are … This measurement typically is expressed in hours. Reliability, maintainability, and availability (RAM) are three system attributes that are of great interest to systems engineers, logisticians, and users. A manager needs to ensure the availability of the AHU for the next 72 hours. It is a measure of the chance of remaining in-service to a point in time. I constantly feel your presence and resounding inspiring words towards such work, though you do not communicate through alphabets. What should be ideal ratio/relationship between MTBR and MTTR for process industries, which will take care of ”conservation of spare and man hours required for breakdown maintenance.”. During this correct operation, no repair is required or performed, and the system adequately follows the defined performance specifications. This is the time-line of a particular Equipment where U is Operating time (Uptime in Hrs), D is Repair time (Downtime in Hrs). So the calculation is: R(72) = e -(72)(0.00333). Thank you so much sir for your valuable explanation…. It is most often expressed as a percentage, using the following calculation: Availability = 100 x (Available Time (hours) / Total Time (hours)) For equipment and/or systems that are expected to be able to be operated 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, Total Time is usually defined as being 24 hours/day, 7 days/week (in other words 8,760 hours per year). The formulae used here in this post are in their simplest form for understanding purposes. What is the overall reliability of the system for a 100-hour mission? Subsystem 1 has a reliability of 99.5%, subsystem 2 has a reliability of 98.7% and subsystem 3 has a reliability of 97.3% for a mission of 100 hours. of Failures = 6 (Denominator for MTTR, MTBR Calculations). I am glad this post helped you. It is calculated by dividing the total operating time of the asset by the number of failures over a given period of time. The degree to which a system, subsystem or equipment is in a specified operable and committable state at the start of a mission, when the mission is called for at an unknown, i.e. I have created an Excel spreadsheet to automatically calculate split-half reliability with Spearman-Brown adjustment, KR-20, KR-21, and Cronbach's alpha. More the MTBR more is the Reliability. Improvement The following formula is for calculating the probability of failure. What is the probability of failure? The key consideration in this KPI is regarding changes in the plan during the week. At the end of the day, each of these measurements has a financial impact on the organization. of Failures?’ The answer could be ‘Yes, it is ! Probability of failure. After knowing these concepts, it is you to establish local relationships as per your process demands. Simply put, reliability is the absence of unplanned downtime. A total period of 6 weeks has been taken for analysis. Thank you very much sir such a nice document. But it is calculated as a function of No. Below are examples of tracking and measuring that can produce tangible results for both departments and facilities. Taking the example of the AHU above, the calculation to determine MTBF is: 3,600 hours divided by 12 failures. Performance is the second of the three OEE factors to be calculated. For example the machine is down 6 minutes every hour. The failure rate of a system usually depends on time, with the rate varying over the life cycle of … World Class Standards For Overall Equipment Effectiveness We have clearly seen that for the same amount of Equipment Availability, Equipment Reliability changes drastically. Other methods include inter-rater reliability, split-half reliability, and test-retest reliability. Mr Rao, the document is well articulated and cogent, thanks for sharing. Very nice document… very helpful and self explanatory. Lastly, let’s try to understand the practical significance of the term Reliability. It is calculated by dividing the total operating time of the asset by the number of failures over a given period of time. Thanks Muhammed Ali Asim, for your review. Among the most commonly used measurements that managers can put into practice to determine performance are: • mean time to repair (MTTR) • mean time between failure (MTBF) • availability. The Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) is used to identify potential areas of poor reliability and where improvements can be made to lower the failure rates for the equipment. The Equipment03 in Year 1314 has Availability of the order 99.58% but lowest Reliability (MTBR) of 95.57 Hrs. Measuring Reliability. As a result, there are a number of different classifications of availability, including: 1. I am grateful to you, for posting the biggest compliment ever. At times, managers need to calculate the probability that a piece of equipment will fail. As I said if context like above is not taken into account, the more MTBR or least number of Breakdowns can be a measure for Reliability. = Say 108 Hrs. Technicians can extend the equipment’s availability by increasing its reliability. KRl-20 and KR-21 only work when data are entered as 0 and 1. I’m a triathlete, so I measure an unusual amount of stuff. Do NOT use with a Likert scale. Case2: No. No available method of measuring system reliability (e.g., equipment effectiveness = availability × speed ratio × yield) has yet been widely accepted by U.S. manufacturers, and manually collected production downtime data are questionable, inasmuch as waiting time for repairs is seldom reported. The exponential reliability function. Keep it up for another one document,Really its very important. Calculate the mean time to failure for non-repairable scenarios. Reliability Testing can be categorized into three segments, 1. The probability that a PC in a store is up and running for eight hours without crashing is 99%; this is referred as reliability. So the MTTR is one hour. Often paper industry is quoted as an example. The Noria, for instance, is an ancient pump thought to be the world’s first sophisticated machine. This method can be used in both the design and operational phase to identify poor reliability and provide targeted improvements. Total Uptime = U1 + U2 +U3 + U4 + U5 + U6 + U7. Then, a question might arise, that ‘Why Reliability can not be directly based on the No. The availability will not improve unless changes are made to upgrade the asset. See this picture. thanks for putting so much effort in this oustanding business case description. You are right in saying that Availability and Reliability not necessarily be related. Instantaneous (or Point) Availability 2. Let’s try to understand through this picture. The AHU’s blower unit has failed 12 times over this period. Reliability of capital equipment is critical to the success of any manufacturing operation, mobile fleet, facility operation or any combination thereof. Failure rate is the frequency with which an engineered system or component fails, expressed in failures per unit of time. way. MTBF is a basic measure of an asset’s reliability. The result is 300 operating hours. In descrete manufacturing there might not be big difference, but in process industries where machines need to perform without fail for sometime to get the product delivered has got a big dependency. We know that MTTR (Mean Time to Repair in Hrs) = ( D1 + D2 + D3 + D4 + D5 + D6 ) / 6 = 18 . A Highly Reliable Machine is Highly Available Machine too, but the converse need not be true. By continuing with the above example of the AHU, its availability is: 300 divided by 360. Whatever you call it — metrics, measurements, or key performance indicators (KPI) — maintenance and engineering managers must have performance measurements in place either to validate that the work their staffs are performing in achieving the departments’ goals and objectives or to identify opportunities for continuous improvement. MTBF is an important marker in reliability engineering and has its roots in the aviation industry, where airplane failure can result in fatalities. I always look forward to your documents. I track my 401k, my gas mileage, and yes, even my budget. Another good document, thanks for sharing Sir…, Thank you hitendra for your encouraging words, Clearly I am running out of words to appreciate your efforts in clarifying the doubts and the amount of time you are spending for the same. I don’t think that we can ever escape measuring, tracking or following things. a random, time. Example: 373 minutes / 420 minutes = 0.8881 (88.81%) Performance. A MTBF value is the average time between failures. The classification of availability is somewhat flexible and is largely based on the types of downtimes used in the computation and on the relationship with time (i.e., the span of time to which the availability refers). Data Center Facility Management Salaries », HVAC's Role In Preventing The Spread Of COVID-19 », Executive Director of Facilities & Operations », Discover 18 Key Products & Services For Facility Professionals, NFMT - Facilities Education and Conference. For example, think about your car — reliability is having it start every time you put the key in the ignition. In reliability engineering, the term availability has the following meanings: . Sometimes referred to as maintainability, MTTR is the measure of the department’s ability to perform maintenance to retain or restore assets to a specified condition. Thanks for the info. it helped me a lot. How do you accurately go about determining equipment reliability? Calculate the system reliability. You state that “A Highly Reliable Machine is Highly Available Machine too, but the converse need not be true.“. Reliability is the probability that a system performs correctly during a specific time duration. = Say 900 Hrs. There is, however, something I don’t understand still. To a great extent you can choose how long you want between equipment failures. Thank you sir, for such a valuable information. You can have my other contributions here: MyContent. Create plots of R(t), f(t) and h(t). Thank you very much for your motivating words Patrick! If a piece of equipment isn’t available at the right times…it can mean late orders, missed shipments, broken contracts, upset customers, and lost money. The calculation for this is: R(t) = e (-t), where: •e is the weighted average value of a random variable, or the expected value. Output derived functions to a Microsoft Excel formula format. Three subsystems are reliability-wise in series and make up a system. Formula: Run Time / Planned Production Time. Split-Half Reliability KR-20 • NOTE: Only use the KR-20 if each item has a right answer. So our Equipment in Case2 is more reliable. You can deliver high equipment reliability by ensuring the chance of incidents that cause failures “Reliability analysis as a tool for surface mining equipment evaluation and selection”, CIM Bulletin, 93( 1044), 78 – 82, 2000. You are directly/ indirectly a role model to me. Thecombined system is operational only if both Part X and Part Y are available.From this it follows that the combined availability is a product ofthe availability of the two parts. Could you explain if I’ve misunderstood the definitions? For example, a facility is responsible for maintaining a standard air-handling unit (AHU) that has operated for 3,600 hours over the past two years. The reliability estimates are incorrect if you have missing data. Average Uptime Availability (or Mean Availability) 3. Thank you for the compliments. As goes our personal lives, so goes our work. No standard Tcode is there for Availability % in SAP. No. Your document always encourage me for trying new areas in Plant Maintenance. Thanks for the clear explanation. Equipment Availability (%) is: UpTime / Total Time = (900 / 1008) * 100 = 89.2. To calculate availability, use the formula of MTBF divided by (MTBF + MTTR). Process Reliability and Six-Sigma by H. Paul Barringer Process Reliability and Six-Sigma By Paul Barringer, P.E. For instance, a cloud solution may be available with an SLA commitment of 99.999 percent, but vulnerabilities to sophisticated cyber-attacks may cause IT outages beyond the control of the vendor. A MTBF calculation is often done to generate an indicator of plant and equipment reliability. Reliability can be broadly defined as the probability that an Equipment will perform its intended functions continuously for a specified duration. Availability. The result is 83.3 percent availability. Thanks, Piyush. We have seen the Availability, Now let’s see the Reliability. Active participation started from June last year, with sole idea in mind that ‘Let me return some to SCN’. Thank you very much sir for providing such a valuable document. Greetings. They might not exactly match with those mentioned in different contexts like OEE calculations etc. As stated above, two parts X and Y are considered to be operating in series iffailure of either of the parts results in failure of the combination. In the AHU example, the MTBF is 300, so 1 divided by 300 is 0.00333. I promose to educate my co-workmen about this matter. OEE is used as a gauge to assess how well the plant is performing. MTBR (H) value is a direct measure of Reliability. That was a deveopment. As the formula indicates it will be easy to compute through Infoset Query or a simple ABAP program using table S070 (Inostructure). Using the above formula and setting the reliability of each element at 0.9, we find. • - In probability theory and statistics, the exponential distribution, which is also known as negative exponential distribution, is the probability that describes the time between events. Equipment Availability (%) is: UpTime / Total Time = (900 / 1008) * 100 = 89.2, Another formula for Equipment Availability in practice is [MTBR / (MTTR + MTBR)] * 100 = (150 / 168 )*100 = 89.2, No. Example: Calculating Reliability of a Series System. Output Reliability will only be calculated on the basis of packing lines, not in processing operations. it s very nice document to understand availability and reliability of machine. There are serious dangers with use of MTBF that need to be addressed when you do a MTBF calculation. Maintenance, Measurement and Equipment Reliability. A higher failure rate or a greater number of failure incidences will directly translate to less-reliable equipment. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a standard used for measuring plant performance. The Center for Chemical Process Safety has been providing quantitative risk assessment data to the chemical process industries since the 1980s and published the first of its “CCPS Guidelines for Process Equipment Reliability Data” in 1989 and “Guidelines for Improving Plant Reliability through Data Collection and Analysis” in 1998. Compare this with the 2nd line: Equipment02 has lowest Availability 99.39% but good Reliability (MTBR) around 400 Hrs. It measures the average time required to restore an asset to its full operational condition after a failure. Part one of a two part series. The origins of the field of reliability engineering, at least the demand for it, can be traced back to the point at which man began to depend upon machines for his livelihood. The result is 78.68 percent. Thank you for providing the link I shall check all your sharings!!! Very Nice Document to understand MTTR and MTBR. I would think that all it takes is a long MTTR to make a highly reliable system have poor availability. •t is 1 divided by MTBF. There’s not a day that goes by that I don’t measure something. Measurement 3. I feel honored to receive such appreciation. Tracking the reliability of facility equipment can help maintain and decrease time spent on repairs. Steady State Availability 4. of Failures = 2 (Denominator for MTTR, MTBR Calculations). For critical assets such as airplanes, safety equipment, and generators, MTBF is an important indicator of expected performance. R(t) = e − λt = e − t╱θ, where θ = 1╱λ This formula provides the probably of success at time t given either the failure rate, λ, or the MTBF (or MTTF), θ. Determine the reliability function, probability density function and hazard function for a wide variety of failure distributions using the Weibull distribution. This is a simple post on the Reliability concept. If it is meant to last for 10,000 hours (about 14 months of continuous operation), and does last that long, it is 100% reliable to 10,000 hours. Calculating a plant’s OEE helps identify areas that are holding the plant back from performing at maximum capacity. of Failures per a Specified period , where this period might differ from process to process and hence the acceptability of Reliability Index‘. There are two commonly used measures of reliability: * Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF), which is defined as: total time in service / number of failures * Failure Rate (λ), which is defined as: number of failures / total time in service. It accounts for when the process is running slower than its theoretical top speed (both Small Stops and Slow Cycles). Availability is, in essence, the amount of time that an item of equipment or system is able to be operated when desired. It seems to me that, in principle, Reliability and Availability are not necessarily related. Thank you for posting valuable information. • Formula: – rKR20 is the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 – k is the total number of test items – Σindicates to sum – p is the proportion of the test takers … My pleasure Christophe Sturzel and thanks for appreciation. The objective of this post is to bring clarity in understanding the two often confused terms viz, Availability and Reliability, by explaining in simple perspective for the purpose of understanding by a common maintenance man. For managers, measuring and monitoring their departments’ activities is essential in determining the way that these activities affect the facility’s overall condition and performance. Modeling 2. which is very reliable. From behalf of all our SDN members many thanks for the same and hope the same will continue. Repeating the same thing, a highly Available machine need not be always Reliable, because the Reliability has got dependence on the Production Process. If a machine breaks down like case1, the finished paper will never come-out of the paper machine. MTBF. A Reliability program is designed to increase the availability and performance of the plant’s equipment by identifying potential failures and eliminating their cause or … Here I want to share a screen-shot ( used in one of my previous documents ) . The discipline’s first concerns were electronic and mechanical components (Ebeling, 2010). In other words, reliability of a system will be high at its initial state of operation and gradually reduce to its lowest magnitude over time. reliability based on operation of equipment over time. Another formula for Equipment Availability in practice is [MTBR / (MTTR + MTBR)] * 100 = (150 / 168 )*100 = 89.2. Dear Sir…..your document made the concept really simple and understandable. Taking the example of the AHU above, the calculation to determine MTBF is: 3,600 hours divided by 12 failures. Nice document, I agree with all other members , you have contributed immensely to SCN. It is an awesome explanation of reliability and Equipment Availability. Utilizing hydraulic energy from the flow of a river or stream, the Noria utilized buckets to transfer water to troughs, viaducts and other distribution devices to irrigate fi… Achieved Availability 6. of Failures = 2 (Denominator for MTTR, MTBR Calculations) Suppose here too we get the same total values like: So, let’s say we have five components with Reliability at one year of use, R(1), at 90%, or 0.9. You measure the reliability of equipment by its trouble-free time. Is anyone else like me? My compliments, you achieved again to outline a rather complex topic in a well structured and understandable ( ! ) Thanks sir for sharing such valuable documents. In process industries if a chain of machines run without any problem for several hours then a stage comes for the final equipment deliver the finished product. Initially encouraged by you (I do not forget) afterwards by space itself and also the moderators. What is Reliability? Taking the total time to repair the unit and dividing that number by the number of failures produces an average time to repair the unit of 60 minutes. For equipment that is expected to be oper… Total Downtime = D1 + D2 + D3 + D4 + D5 + D6. This calculation gets a little more complicated mathematically.